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programmingpraxis - Scheme, pasted on Jul 1:
; decoding text-speak

(define (filter pred? xs)
  (let loop ((xs xs) (ys '()))
    (cond ((null? xs) (reverse ys))
          ((pred? (car xs))
            (loop (cdr xs) (cons (car xs) ys)))
          (else (loop (cdr xs) ys)))))

(define (unique eql? xs)
  (cond ((null? xs) '())
        ((null? (cdr xs)) xs)
        ((eql? (car xs) (cadr xs))
          (unique eql? (cdr xs)))
        (else (cons (car xs) (unique eql? (cdr xs))))))

(define (make-dict lt?)

  (define-syntax define-generator
    (lambda (x)
      (syntax-case x (lambda)
        ((stx name (lambda formals e0 e1 ...))
           (with-syntax ((yield (datum->syntax-object (syntax stx) 'yield)))
             (syntax (define name
               (lambda formals
                 (let ((resume #f) (return #f))
                   (define yield
                     (lambda args
                        (lambda (cont)
                          (set! resume cont)
                          (apply return args)))))
                   (lambda ()
                      (lambda (cont)
                        (set! return cont)
                        (cond (resume (resume))
                        (else (let () e0 e1 ...)
                              (error 'name "unexpected return"))))))))))))
          ((stx (name . formals) e0 e1 ...)
            (syntax (stx name (lambda formals e0 e1 ...)))))))

  (define (tree k v l r)
    (vector k v l r (+ (max (ht l) (ht r)) 1)
                    (+ (size l) (size r) 1)))
  (define (key t) (vector-ref t 0))
  (define (val t) (vector-ref t 1))
  (define (lkid t) (vector-ref t 2))
  (define (rkid t) (vector-ref t 3))
  (define (ht t) (vector-ref t 4))
  (define (size t) (vector-ref t 5))
  (define (bal t) (- (ht (lkid t)) (ht (rkid t))))
  (define nil (vector 'nil 'nil 'nil 'nil 0 0))
  (define (nil? t) (eq? t nil))

  (define (rot-left t)
    (if (nil? t) t
      (tree (key (rkid t))
            (val (rkid t))
            (tree (key t) (val t) (lkid t) (lkid (rkid t)))
            (rkid (rkid t)))))

  (define (rot-right t)
    (if (nil? t) t
      (tree (key (lkid t))
            (val (lkid t))
            (lkid (lkid t))
            (tree (key t) (val t) (rkid (lkid t)) (rkid t)))))

  (define (balance t)
    (let ((b (bal t)))
      (cond ((< (abs b) 2) t)
            ((positive? b)
              (if (< -1 (bal (lkid t))) (rot-right t)
                (rot-right (tree (key t) (val t)
                  (rot-left (lkid t)) (rkid t)))))
            ((negative? b)
              (if (< (bal (rkid t)) 1) (rot-left t)
                (rot-left (tree (key t) (val t)
                  (lkid t) (rot-right (rkid t)))))))))

  (define (lookup t k)
    (cond ((nil? t) #f)
          ((lt? k (key t)) (lookup (lkid t) k))
          ((lt? (key t) k) (lookup (rkid t) k))
          (else (cons k (val t)))))

  (define (insert t k v)
    (cond ((nil? t) (tree k v nil nil))
          ((lt? k (key t))
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (insert (lkid t) k v) (rkid t))))
          ((lt? (key t) k)
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (lkid t) (insert (rkid t) k v))))
          (else (tree k v (lkid t) (rkid t)))))

  (define (update t f k v)
    (cond ((nil? t) (tree k v nil nil))
          ((lt? k (key t))
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (update (lkid t) f k v) (rkid t))))
          ((lt? (key t) k)
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (lkid t) (update (rkid t) f k v))))
          (else (tree k (f k (val t)) (lkid t) (rkid t)))))

  (define (delete-successor t)
    (if (nil? (lkid t)) (values (rkid t) (key t) (val t))
        (lambda () (delete-successor (lkid t)))
        (lambda (l k v)
          (values (balance (tree (key t) (val t) l (rkid t))) k v)))))

  (define (delete t k)
    (cond ((nil? t) nil)
          ((lt? k (key t))
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (delete (lkid t) k) (rkid t))))
          ((lt? (key t) k)
            (balance (tree (key t) (val t)
              (lkid t) (delete (rkid t) k))))
          ((nil? (lkid t)) (rkid t))
          ((nil? (rkid t)) (lkid t))
          (else (call-with-values
                  (lambda () (delete-successor (rkid t)))
                  (lambda (r k v) (balance (tree k v (lkid t) r)))))))

  (define (nth t n)
    (if (negative? n) (error 'nth "must be non-negative")
      (let ((s (size (lkid t))))
        (cond ((< n s) (nth (lkid t) n))
              ((< s n) (nth (rkid t) (- n s 1)))
              ((nil? t) #f)
              (else (cons (key t) (val t)))))))

  (define (rank t k)
    (let loop ((t t) (s (size (lkid t))))
      (cond ((nil? t) #f)
            ((lt? k (key t))
              (loop (lkid t) (size (lkid (lkid t)))))
            ((lt? (key t) k)
              (loop (rkid t) (+ s (size (lkid (rkid t))) 1)))
            (else s))))

  (define (avl-map proc t) ; (proc key value)
    (if (nil? t) nil
      (tree (key t) (proc (key t) (val t))
            (avl-map proc (lkid t))
            (avl-map proc (rkid t)))))

  (define (avl-fold proc base t) ; (proc key value base)
    (if (nil? t) base
      (avl-fold proc
                (proc (key t) (val t)
                      (avl-fold proc base (lkid t)))
                (rkid t))))

  (define (avl-for-each proc t) ; (proc key value)
    (unless (nil? t)
      (avl-for-each proc (lkid t))
      (proc (key t) (val t))
      (avl-for-each proc (rkid t))))

  (define (to-list t)
    (cond ((nil? t) (list))
          ((and (nil? (lkid t)) (nil? (rkid t)))
            (list (cons (key t) (val t))))
          (else (append (to-list (lkid t))
                        (list (cons (key t) (val t)))
                        (to-list (rkid t))))))

  (define (from-list t xs)
    (let loop ((xs xs) (t t))
      (if (null? xs) t
        (loop (cdr xs) (insert t (caar xs) (cdar xs))))))

  (define-generator (make-gen t)
    (avl-for-each (lambda (k v) (yield (cons k v))) t)
    (do () (#f) (yield #f)))

  (define (new dict)
    (lambda (message . args) (dispatch dict message args)))

  (define (dispatch dict message args)
    (define (arity n)
      (if (not (= (length args) n)) (error 'dict "incorrect arity")))
    (case message
      ((empty? nil?) (arity 0) (nil? dict))
      ((lookup fetch get) (arity 1) (apply lookup dict args))
      ((insert store put) (arity 2) (new (apply insert dict args)))
      ((update) (arity 3) (new (apply update dict args)))
      ((delete remove) (arity 1) (new (apply delete dict args)))
      ((size count length) (arity 0) (size dict))
      ((nth) (arity 1) (apply nth dict args))
      ((rank) (arity 1) (apply rank dict args))
      ((map) (arity 1) (new (avl-map (car args) dict)))
      ((fold) (arity 2) (avl-fold (car args) (cadr args) dict))
      ((for-each) (arity 1) (avl-for-each (car args) dict))
      ((to-list enlist) (arity 0) (to-list dict))
      ((from-list) (arity 1) (new (apply from-list dict args)))
      ((make-gen gen) (arity 0) (make-gen dict))
      (else (error 'dict "invalid message"))))

  (vector-set! nil 2 nil) (vector-set! nil 3 nil) (new nil))

(define (string-downcase str)
    (map char-downcase
      (string->list str))))

(define (string-split sep str)
  (define (f cs xs) (cons (list->string (reverse cs)) xs))
  (let loop ((ss (string->list str)) (cs '()) (xs '()))
    (cond ((null? ss) (reverse (if (null? cs) xs (f cs xs))))
          ((char=? (car ss) sep) (loop (cdr ss) '() (f cs xs)))
          (else (loop (cdr ss) (cons (car ss) cs) xs)))))

(define (vowel? c)
  (member c (list #\a #\e #\i #\o #\u)))

(define (unvowel cs)
  (filter (lambda (c) (not (vowel? c))) cs))

(define (undouble cs) (unique char=? cs))

(define (sign word)
  ; keep leading vowel, replace doubles by singles
  (let ((cs (undouble (string->list (string-downcase word)))))
    (list->string (cons (car cs) (unvowel (cdr cs))))))

(define dict (make-dict string<?))

  (lambda (word)
    (set! dict (dict 'update (lambda (k v) (cons word v))
                     (sign word) (list word))))
  (list "same" "some" "people" "compress" "text" "messages"
        "by" "buy" "buoy" "bayou" "retaining" "returning"
        "this" "these" "those" "vowels" "that" "begin" "word"
        "replacing" "double" "letters" "with" "single"))

(define (lookup txt)
  (let ((words (dict 'lookup txt)))
    (if (not words) txt
      (if (pair? (cddr words))
          (cdr words)
          (cadr words)))))

(define (decode txt-spk)
  (map lookup (map string-downcase
    (string-split #\space txt-spk))))

(display (decode "Sm ppl cmprs txt msgs by rtnng only ths vwls tht bgn a wrd and by rplcng dbld ltrs wth sngl ltrs"))

((some same) people compress text messages (bayou buoy buy by) retaining only (those these this) vowels that begin a word and (bayou buoy buy by) replacing dbld letters with single letters)

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